Traditionally, the main fodder crops for pig production in the CIS countries are:
- Barley - from 20 to 70% in the composition of mixed fodders for all groups;
- Wheat - 30% for weaning and fattering, and 25% for sows and male pigs;
- Corn - up to 30% on growing and the main herd, up to 15% for fattening.
Barley Is the main fodder crop in pig production. Almost does not contain anti-nutrients, a valuable source of quality fiber. Meat and fat of pigs, which were grown on barley diets, have excellent taste qualities.
Feature Wheat Is a high gluten content (up to 20-40% of the total protein). Gluten is insoluble in water but is able to attach a large amount of it, creating a rubber-like mass, and with excessive saturation with water, a paste. The formation of such a mass in the gastrointestinal tract of animals reduces the availability of all nutrients to digestive enzymes, the duration of the digestion process increases.
Corn has the highest energy content among all cereals, but little protein and a poor amino acid composition. It has good taste due to the high content of fats.
But these fats have a high melting point, leading to a decrease in the quality of fat and pig meat when fed into the final phase of fattening. Fats with a melting point below the body temperature of the animal melt, it is better to smelt and easier and better assimilated, so the nutritional value of fats is determined precisely by this indicator.
Precisely because of the lack of a significant amount of anti-nutrients and the content of high-quality fiber, barley is such a valuable feed ingredient.
Fiber regulates the rate of feed movement along the gastrointestinal tract and ensures the best absorption of nutrients.
With the development of the of fodder and feeding science, the development of the "Ideal protein concept», Systems SID (Standardized) Aminoacids Digestibility, Separation of raw fiber to different fractions and obtaining reliable experimental data, it became possible to replace part of the barley with other feed ingredients.
These feed ingredients are:
- Dry beet pulp;
- Dry beer bead;
- Dry corn feed;
- Corn-phosphatide concentrate, etc.
In conditions of a limited amount of barley, alternative sources of quality fiber can be used, provided that the total nutritional balance of the ration is properly balanced.
But in any case, the preparation of recipes for ready-made mixed fodders should be carried out according to the actual content of nutrients after laboratory testing. This will ensure maximum effect from feeding.
And most important, the influence of most anti-nutrient feed ingredients on the growth and development of animals can be reduced by additional processing of feed (micronization, extrusion or expansion) or finished feed (granulation).
If it is necessary, to reduce% of the introduction of barley into the composition of mixed fodders, we suggest developing alternative diets using cheap local fodder ingredients. To do this, to begin with, we need information on their availability, cost and basic nutritional indicators (raw protein, raw fat, raw fiber, moisture, etc.).
Having considered all options, schemes for processing raw materials (if needed), recipes for finished feed and adapted premixes will be proposed.