CEVA LUNG PROGRAM(CLP)- offers a methodology and guidance on the objective assessment of the presence, prevalence (extent of coverage), the severity of the pathological process and the impact: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, using an adapted score (in points) of the state of lung slaughter pigs. The program is used to assess the epizootic situation, determine the vaccination protocol, and monitor its effectiveness.
Lesions of the lungs caused by various infections are one of the most important causes of economic losses in industrial pig production. Losses are caused not only by mortality, but also by less obvious factors: an increase in the cost of treatments, a decrease in the rate of growth in animals, and a deterioration in the efficiency of feed conversion.
History of the development of the diagnostic process
One of the most important elements of the diagnostic process and monitoring of respiratory pathologies in industrial pig production is the correct identification and objective quantification of lung lesions from slaughter pigs.
Since chronic lesions present at the time of slaughter are easily identified and serve as a source of information on the condition of animals on the farm, conducting such a survey enables timely monitoring of infections and/or evaluation of the effectiveness of veterinary and preventive measures, and also allows an objective assessment of the effectiveness of various vaccination prophylaxis regimens and Antibiotic therapy.
Inspection of lung pigs at the slaughterhouse is a convenient tool for assessing the situation of respiratory diseases in a particular farm, farm or technological group of animals.
Since the seventies of the twentieth century, methods have been developed in different countries to determine the extent and characteristics of pneumonia, pleurisy and other pulmonary pathologies. The brightest examples are:
- 1982 г. — MADEC and KOBISCH;
- 1992 - POINTON et al., - this technique is used in the American (PigMON) and Australian (PHMS, Pig Health Monitoring Schemes) monitoring systems;
- 1999 - CHRISTENSEN et al., Denmark;
- 2007 г. - CTPA (Technical Center for Animal Production), PAGOT et al .;
- 2007 - SPES (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System) - Plevrite Evaluation System at Slaughterhouse, Italy, IZSLER Institute, DOTTORI et al.
- 2012 - Something Long Program (CLP).
To date, several methods are used to assess the degree of lesions of the lung tissue. These techniques are based on the analysis of visible lesions and in some cases are accompanied by calculations that give the percentage of affected tissues and the overall score of lung damage. However, the main drawback of such techniques is the complexity of their practical implementation.
Company CEVA Sante Animale in cooperation with the Institute for the Protection of Animals ISZLER (Italy) developed CLP, the CEVA Lung Program, a combination of two modified methods for assessing pulmonary lesions (Madec and SPES) associated with the microorganisms Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap ) And Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
The CLP in Action
To facilitate and automate the analysis of the survey, CEVA offers free software for mobile devices (Figure 1).
Figure 1. The working field of CLP App (iOS)
The CLP technique is an important element in the diagnosis/control of actinobacillous pleuropneumonia (APP) and enzootic pneumonia (M.hyo) in pigs and complements laboratory studies (serological, molecular-biological).
The CLP specialized system facilitates evaluation of pulmonary tissue lesions and is based on a scoring system from 0 to 4, objectively reflecting the presence, intensity and location of pathological changes associated with infection with microorganisms Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
In the CLP technique, pneumonia is assessed using the well-known Madec technique, which has been modified to take into account Percentage of each share in the total volume of lungs. Foci of the lesion (in each lobe of the lungs), characteristic of enzootic pneumonia, are quantified according to the degree of the lesion (from 0 to 4).
Also in the CLP included and quantitative evaluation of fissures (scars). The prevalence of fissures or scars (scars) is assessed on the basis of their presence or absence. The frequency of fissure detection indicates infection and a previous illness of the animal with microorganism M. hyopneumoniae.
Calculated indices "% lungs with bronchopneumonia", "% of the affected surface" and assessment of severity of pathological changes according to the modified Madec scale allow objectively to assess the extent and severity of the clinical manifestation of respiratory mycoplasmosis (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Results of evaluation of pulmonary lesions associated with respiratory mycoplasmosis (enzootic pneumonia), 2 slaughter groups of pigs
Evaluation of pleurisy in the CLP is performed on the scale of the Evaluation System of Pleuris at the Slaughterhouse (English SPES).The modified SPES technique is focused on the evaluation of pleural lesions and is also based on an ascoringe system from 0 to 4, assigned in accordance with the presence, distribution and localization of pleurisy.
In this case, any cranial pleurisy is recorded in a separate column as "Cranial pleuritis" (1 point). For the pleurisy, localized in the dorso-quad region and caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the APPI index is calculated. The value of APPI objectively reflects the presence and severity of the APP problem in the surveyed group of pigs (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Results of evaluation of pulmonary lesions associated with actinobacilli pleuropneumonia, 2 slaughter groups of pigs
By means of statistical processing of the obtained data, the Ceva Lung Program allows not only to measure the frequency of the lesion, but also to determine the distribution by classes in the sample and present the results in an understandable graphic form, and also provides information on the frequency, severity and presumed origin of the pathological changes most characteristic of the microorganisms Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae (Ap) and / or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
The modern CLP technique (Ceva Lung Program) helps to assess the condition of lung tissue and helps to formulate the correct diagnosis for diseases of the respiratory system of pigs. The technique allows to reveal even subclinical disease of animals, which was not noticed during the growing / fattening period.
This methodology can also be used to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures against microorganisms M. hyo and Ap. With regular application, the CEVA lung health assessment program helps to analyze the epizootic situation in the household, understand the dynamics of these infections in a certain period, or identify seasonal differences in the course of an infectious Process.