Growth stimulators for pigs

Growth stimulators for pigs
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The goal of effective pig production is to maximize the growth. This can be achieved by introducing specific substances in the diet for pigs, but it is worth keeping in mind that the pledge of good performance indicators is:

  • A properly balanced diet;
  • Management on the farm;
  • Animal health status;
  • conditions of detention.

The most important role is performed by the management of the pig farm. Factors such as health status,the presence of specific diseases,animal ownership,sanitation, environmental control and the effects of diseases have a significant impact on the rate of growth and consumption of feed.

Inclusion of antimicrobial substances in raw materials is the most common method of stimulating growth at very low levels. Such growth promoters at very low levels have the effect of reducing the activity of microorganisms in the intestine, which increases the absorption of nutrients in the intestine and suppresses any harmful products of bacterial metabolism.

What is the effectiveness of growth stimulants?

Summary of data for the last 15 years shows the following:

  • Improve the average daily weight gain to 4%;
  • Improve daily feed intake by 0.2-1.4%;
  • Improve conversion by 2.5-3.9%.

However, the more effective the feeding and the healthier the flock, the greater the effect.

Licensed growth stimulants typically have a minimal elimination period and most of them have antibiotics that have little or no therapeutic effect on the pig or are not used in medicine. There are exceptions, for example, tylosin.

Required characteristics of a growth stimulant:

  • They should not be accumulated in the intestines or edible tissues;
  • Must not be toxic to humans and animals;
  • The use should be economically conditioned;
  • There should be no side effects to other antibiotics;
  • Should not be labeled therapeutic value in medicine;
  • Do not change normal bacteria in the intestine or stimulate certain bacteria (eg, salmonella);
  • Do not pollute the environment and must quickly decompose in it;
  • Should not increase the resistance of bacteria to drugs or be involved in the transfer of resistance to drugs from one species to another.

But,tilozin, Spiramycin, Zinc bacitracin, Virginiamycin, karʙadoks and olaquindox currently are currently prohibited In the European Union in order to stimulate growth.

Available types of growth stimulants

  • Antimicrobial growth stimulants (antibiotics)
They include avilamycin, carbadox, flavomycin, olaquindox, spiramycin, salinomycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and zinc bacitracin. At the moment, only Avilomycin and salinomycin are allowed in the EU.
  • Acidifying agents

They are used to reduce the pH of the intestinal contents or they have a weak antibacterial effect. The first include acids such as lactic, citric, fumaric, malic, the second - acetic, propionic and formic acids.

  • Mineral clays (adsorbents)

These are drugs that can absorb toxins from the digestive system, which can stimulate the development of pathogenic bacteria.

  • Enzymes

There are many different enzymes in the body. It is difficult for an organism of pigs to split complex cellular structures, especially in wheat. Enzymes are designed to help in the destruction of fibers, as well as improve the efficiency of digesting plant proteins. Each enzyme is specific in its action.
Digestion of fiber is enhanced by carbohydrates, such as beta glucanases or xylanases, which act on fibers such as arabinoxylanobi beta glucans. Such fibers contain anti-nutrients, which are also found in proteins.

  • Fermentation

Liquid feeding provides the opportunity to create an acidic environment by fermentation and inclusion of certain microorganisms, for example, Lactobacillus, which in the intestine hinders the development of pathogenic microflora, and also increases the digestibility of feed.

  • Salts of metals

The use of copper as growth stimulants is well researched. Zinc oxide proved to be very effective in preventing diarrhea during weaning.

  • Nutricevtiki

These are substances that are released from certain plants and their effectiveness has not been fully proven. For example, fatty acids and plants with high levels of vitamin E can increase the effectiveness of the immune system. Often used substances from garlic, ginseng, oregano, cinnamon, anise, rosemary, mint, and propolis are often used.

  • Probiotics

It is by nature a living bacterial and yeast culture that is added to the feed. Their efficacy has not been accurately studied and is presumably most effective in young growing pigs.

Table 1. Effectiveness of feed additives as growth stimulants

Feed Additive Efficiency
Antibiotics +++++
Copper sulphate +++
Enzymes +++
Fermentation ?
Immunoglobulins ++
Lactose ++
Mineral clays ?
Organic acids +
Probiotics +
Zinc oxide ++++

Table 2. Available growth stimulants and supplements

Active substance The dose of the active substance,
grams / tonne
Some trade names Comments
Alpha-amylase According to instructions Kenzyme Power Amplifier
Flavors 100 Crina Power Amplifier
Avilamycin 10 — 40 Maxus 20-40 g to 4 months of age
10-20 g to 4-6 months of age
Types of Bacillus According to instructions Paciflor
Bacillus subtilis
Bscillus licheniformis
Biogrow Enzyme production
flavomycin 10 — 20 Flavomycin Up to 6 months of age
Beta-glucanase According to instructions Allzyme BG Digestible enzymes
Beta-glucanase According to instructions Porzyme Activation of the enzyme
Karʙadoks 15 — 30 Carbadox Not allowed in the EU
Cellulase Hostazyme Digestible enzymes
Cellulase According to instructions Roxazyme Activation of the enzyme
Chlortetracycline 10 — 55 Aureomycin Not allowed in the EU
Copper carbonate 100 - 175 (copper) Castor Ltd. To 100 g piglets weaning
175 g - up to 17 weeks of age
Copper sulphate 100 - 175 (copper) Castor Ltd. To 100 g piglets weaning
Copper oxide 100 - 175 (copper) Castor Ltd. 175 g - up to 17 weeks of age
Enterococcus faecium Cylactin Amplifier of intestinal flora
Fl-fosfolypol 1 - 25 g Flaveco (40)
Fl-fosfolypol 1 - 20 g Flavomycin (80)
Proteolytic fungi Allzyme PF Digestible proteolytic enzymes
Inactivated E. coli According to instructions inmates
L-carnitine According to instructions Carnifeed The metabolism enhancer
Lincomycin 20 Lincomix Not allowed in the EU
Mannan-oligosaxarid According to instructions Bio-Moss Strengthens intestinal immunity
olaquindox 15 — 100 Enterodox Up to 4 months of age
Not allowed in the EU
Organic acids Acid-Pak Organic acidulant 2.5 kg / tonne
Organic acids Aciprol Food acidiulent 1-4 kg
Organic acids Lupro-mix Food acidiulent
Organic acids According to instructions Sal-Zap Control of salmonella
oxytetracycline 10 — 55 Terramycin Not allowed in the EU
Milk streptococcus Bactocell Milk acidiulent
Xylanase Allzyme PT Digestible enzymes
Fitan According to instructions Innozym
Activation of the enzyme
Procaine penicillin 10 — 50 Not allowed in some EU countries
Propionic acid According to instructions Salcurb Control of salmonella
Types of Saccharomices cervisiae According to instructions Thepax
Intensifying digestion
salinomycin 15 — 60 Salocin Pigs up to 40 kg - 30-60 g
Pigs for slaughter - 15-30 g
Sanquinara According to instructions Sangrovit Stimulant of digestion
Spiramycin 5 — 80 Spira Not allowed in the EU
Tiamulin 10 Tiamutin Not allowed in the EU
Tilozin 10 — 40 Tylan 40 g to 4 months of age, after - 20 g
Not allowed in the EU
Virginiaamycin 5 — 50 Stafac 50 g to 4 months of age, after - 20 g
Not allowed in the EU
Xylanase According to instructions Wheat zyme Activation of the enzyme
Xylanase According to instructions Safizyme Activation of the enzyme
Yucca extract 120 De-Odorane Reduction of ammonium content
Zinc bacitracin 5 — 50 albac 5-50 g to 6 months of age
Not allowed in the EU